Saturday, July 31, 2010
Why use a pre-filter? Well, it depends on the quality of the water. If it is a clear water supply, then it is not needed at all. It should be used when your water source contains a lot of sediment and particles. The pre-filter serves to remove some of the larger particles, so they do not clog up your filter. Make no mistake; a pre-filter will allow all sorts of particles to go through. Think about a coffee filter. When you use one in your coffee maker, it removes the grains, but the coffee is not exactly clear drinking water.
Here is how I made mine. I took a small plastic container (it came from a chocolate egg in which there was a small toy). You can use a film canister to do the same thing. In one end make a hole into which to fit the filter hose. Make sure it is a tight fit. On the other end of the container make several holes. Now take the end of the filter tube, and wrap it in coffee filters or whatever material you wish to use. Close it, and you are good to go.
In the field, you can disassemble it, and clean the dirt from the filters, or can just replace them if they get very dirty. When not using the pre-filter, make sure you let it dry well so it does not become a breeding ground for bacteria.
Friday, July 30, 2010
I've been in Bali since Wednesday afternoon, and having been able to shrug off some of the jet-lag and its resultant disorientation, I've been quite busy in Ubud and its environs. For starters, I'm working on a feature covering a famous Wayang Kulit in Sukawati and other projects.
In the meantime, Komang (my driver and fixer) suggested that I attend a small Balinese wedding close to Ubud, which we just chanced upon it as we were driving. While the wedding itself was not a tremendously "visual" event in itself, I am always amazed at the generosity and hospitality of the Balinese who, despite of us being nothing more than wedding crashers, welcomed us with open arms, and plied us with food and beverages. This is my fourth trip to Bali, and this never ceases to amaze me.
Most of the 9 participants in the Bali: Island of Odalan Photo~Expedition will be converging at our Ubud hotel tomorrow where, after an hour of orientation, we will start the adventure. It's particularly exciting as we expect to hit the ground running since there are various temple anniversaries all through the 2 weeks of the photo~expedition/workshop.
The above photograph is an out-take of the groom after having been made up for the official wedding portraits. The hand is of the make-up artist who couldn't stop adding final touches even as I was photographing!
Weight: The MSR Miniworks EX comes in at 14.6 oz.
Filtering Element: The MSR Miniworks EX uses a field cleanable ceramic filter element with a carbon core. The pore size of the filter element is 0.2 microns.
Filtering Speed: The MSR Miniworks EX filters one liter per minute.
Cost: The MSR Miniworks EX retails for $90.00.
The Miniworks EX is a hand operated filter, meaning you will have to pump it. The specifications state that it will pump one liter of water per minute, although I can tell you that the pumping rate is effected to a large degree by the quality of the water.
The filter uses a ceramic filter with a carbon core. The pore size of the filter is 0.2 microns. That makes it effective against protozoans such as giardia and cryptosporidium as well as bacteria. The filter will remove sediment and particles from the water, and the carbon core removes some of the chemicals and taste. Viruses however will not be removed and if they are a concern in your particular area, you should carry an additional chemical treatments like chlorine.
The Miniworks EX is not light. It weighs 14.6 oz. The filter element however is good for up to 2000 liters, and more importantly, can be cleaned in the field. The cleaning process is quite simple. You just unscrew the top of the filter, pull out the ceramic element and depending on how dirty it is, you can either just wipe it down, or use the provided scrubbing pad to scrub off a layer from the top of the filter. Put it back in and you are good to go. The whole process takes about two to five minutes.
So, why do I use this filter. Well, it is mostly because of the area in which I mainly backpack. The terrain in my area is very rocky, and any rain runs off quickly. Most times of the year, water is hard to find. You will not run across many clear flowing streams. As a result, most times I will be pumping water from a puddle or a swamp. The quality of the water tends to be low.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. Chemical Treatment
Because of the low quality of the water, chemical purifiers are out for me. First of all, it is only recently that chemical purifiers have developed to the level where they can kill cryptosporidium. The old standbys chlorine and iodine were not able to do that. Newer solutions like chlorine dioxide, and MIOX can get the job done, but take up to four hours. That is just too slow for me.
That leaves out purifiers. Now, why this filter over other filters? The models which I consider competitors and would consider buying are the Katadyn Hiker Pro, the Katadyn Vario, the Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker, and the MSR HyperFlow filter. I will also consider the Katadyn Pocket, although I do not consider it to be in the same league of products.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. Katadyn Hiker Pro
Weight: The Katadyn Hiker Pro weighs 11.0 oz.
Filtering Element: The Katadyn Hiker Pro uses a glassfiber filter with a carbon core. Pore size of the filter element is 0.3 microns.
Filtering Speed: The Katadyn Hiker Pro filters one liter per minute. Cost: The Katadyn Hiker Pro retails for $80.00.
The reason why I use the MSR Miniworks EX over the Katadyn Hiker Pro is because of the filtering element. I have found that in water which contains fine sediment, filters get clogged in a very short period of time, maybe even after filtering just a litter or two of water. With the glassfiber filter of the Hiker Pro, you would have to replace the filter. The Miniworks EX on the other hand is field cleanable. Even in the worse conditions, the filter can be removed, cleaned, and put back without any tools. Considering that I rarely use clear water sources, the glassfiber filter was a non-starter.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. Katadyn Vario
Weight: The Katadyn Vario weighs 15.0 oz.
Filtering Element: The Katadyn Vario uses a glassfiber filter with a carbon core. Pore size of the filter element is 0.3 microns. The Katadyn Vario also has a ceramic pre-filter which can be put in place if the water source contains a lot of sediment.
Filtering Speed: The Katadyn Vario filters two liters per minute with just the glassfiber element.
Cost: The Katadyn Vario retails for $90.00.
The Vario is a theoretical improvement over the Hiker Pro, but it is just unclear what the advantages over the MSR Miniworks EX are. Its main filter is still a glassfiber one, so I have the same issue as I did with the Hiker Pro. The addition of the ceramic pre-filter is a good one, but then again, the Miniworks EX is an all ceramic filter. The Vario seems to add unnecessary complexity for the gained benefit of faster filtering when the ceramic element is removed. To me the benefit is not worth the sacrifice in durability.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker
Weight: The Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker weighs 6.4 oz.
Filtering Element: The Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker uses a fiber filter with an iodine-resin complex. I was unable to find the pore size of the filtering element, but because the water is passed through the iodine, it functions as a filter-purifier combination, which should serve to kill all bacteria and viruses left in the water after the filtering.
Filtering Speed: The Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker filters 0.4 liters per minute.
Cost: The Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker retails for $110.00.
The Pre-Mac is a British made filter which seems to hold a great advantage. That is because it is both a filter and a purifier. It has a fiber filter as well as an iodine core which purifies the water as well as filtering it. This makes it effective against sediment, parasites, bacteria and viruses. Remember that the Miniworks EX does not do anything against viruses. Combined with the low weight of the filter, it should be a no brainer.
The truth is that I specifically did not like the Pre-Mac for this very reason. I do not want a filter-purifier combination. I want my filter to be as simple as possible. In North America, viruses are not much of an issue. Unless you are in some area where you think there is human contamination in the water, disinfecting for viruses is massive overkill. That being said, I carry with me a small bottle of SweetWater chlorine solution. If I think the water is especially suspect, I will add five drops. That will kill any viruses in the water. I like having the option of not putting chemicals in my water unless I feel it is necessary.
The second reason why I prefer the Miniworks EX is the ceramic filter. Again, the fiber filter is not field maintainable. On top of that the Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker can only filter up to 250 litters before the filter has to be replaced. That is almost ten times lower than any of the above filters. This will significantly increase the running cost, as each replacement filter is around $40.00. Also, while I am not a person who does nuts over the speed of the filter, the Pre-Mac Travel Well Trekker is two and a half times slower than even the slowest of the above filter.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. MSR HyperFlow
Weight: The MSR HyperFlow weighs 7.8 oz.
Filtering Element: The MSR HyperFlow uses a hollow fiber filter element. Pore size of the filter element is 0.2 microns.
Filtering Speed: The MSR HyperFlow filters three liters per minute.
Cost: The MSR HyperFlow retails for $100.00.
While the HyperFlow can pump water three times faster than the Muniworks EX and is much lighter, I did not chose it for the same reason as with most of the other filters-the filter element. Considering the type of water I filter, a fiber filter is not the right choice for me.
The HyperFlow can be field cleaned by reversing the valves and using some clean water to back pump it. I have found this process to be unreliable and time consuming. I have found myself in situations where I have simply not been able to back pump the filter because it has been so clogged. This is not something I want to deal with even if I have a source of clean water with which to back pump. The fact that a filter is light in your backpack does not mean much when it can not filter your water.
MSR Miniworks EX vs. Katadyn Pocket
Weight: The Katadyn Pocket weighs 20.4 oz.
Filtering Element: The Katadyn Pocket uses a ceramic filter element. Pore size of the filter element is 0.2 microns.
Filtering Speed: The Katadyn Pocket filters one liter per minute.
Cost: The Katadyn Pocket retails for $290.00.
The name "Pocket" is perhaps a bit of a misnomer here. The filter weighs significantly more than any of the above filters. It has a filter pore size that is the same as the Miniworks EX, clearly also ceramic. Filtering speed is the same. The big advantage of the Katadyn Pocket is its durability. It has a metal body, and the filter element can last for up to 50,000 liters as compared to 2,000 for the Miniworks EX. Keep in mind however that a replacement filter for the Katadyn Pocket is about $180.00. The main reason why I do not consider this filter to be in the same league as those listed above is the cost. It is about three and a half times the cost of a MSR Miniworks EX. It provides the same benefits as the Miniworks EX (same speed, same pore size, field cleanable), but is built in a more robust manner. At three and a half times the cost however, it can afford to do all of those things.
None of the above filters should be considered "bad". The reason why I mentioned them is because they are respected and widely used by many people around the world. As you can see, most of them have very similar specifications. The reasons for my choice are personal ones. I like durable and robust equipment, and the conditions in my area lead me to prefer a ceramic filter such as the MSR Miniworks EX. Using it is certainly not a walk in the park. If I am using a water source with a high amount of fine sedimentation, I might have to take out the filter and clean it after every few litters pumped, but I can keep it working under even those conditions while other filter would probably fail. After over three years of use, it has not failed me. Pick the filter that is right for your conditions.
Thursday, July 29, 2010
I find that the pictures do not give a good enough view of how each trap works. The text however is well written, and goes a long way to remedy that ambiguity. This is the type of text that is hard to find these days, but the material covered can be very valuable to the outdoorsman.
As fart as I know the book is in the public domain and can be downloaded here, here, and a number of other places online.
Wednesday, July 28, 2010
Because of the time commitment involved (could be several days to make and weeks to cure), making soap is not something easily achieved during a short camping trip, and requires a set up more similar to that of Dick Proenneke (log cabin in the middle of the woods).
There is however, an up side. Most manuals and soap recipes have in mind the production of commercial quality soap. There is a large range between such quality soap, and usable soap. This leaves a lot of room for error, while still allowing for clean dishes.
The basics of soap are water, lye and fat. All of them can be obtained in the bush.
There isn’t much to it when it comes to usable soap. I don’t know of any organic fat that can not be used for this purpose. Compacted animal fat tends to yield the best results, but vegetable fat will get the job done, even if the soap ends up a bit soft.
Assuming you are using animal fat, probably from a kill, it will have to be rendered. To do that, cut up the fat into small pieces, place it in a container, and pour just enough water to cover the fat. Heat up the mixture, until all of the fat melts. While melted, strain it to remove any meat, and let it cool. You will find that the fat will solidify at the top of the container, while the water will be at the bottom. Remove the fat, scrape and throw away any gelatenated material and keep the fat for the next step. Keep in mind that it must be used before going rancid.
Lye can be obtained from water and wood ash. This can be done in several ways.
The traditional way is to take a container (typically made of wood) and make a small hole on the bottom. Do not use an aluminum container, because it will get damaged by the lye. Then take wood ash (This needs to be ash, not char coal. Take just the while stuff) and pack it into the container. Make sure it is compacted. Then boil some water, and pour it into the container. In terms of volume, think one gallon of ash, per one gallon of water. The strength of the lye can always be adjusted. Once you pour the water, you will see a reaction with the ash. Place a container under the hole at the bottom, and wait for all of the water to strain through the ash and into the new container. This part can take hours or even days.
When completed, let the liquid dry in the sun until all the water evaporates, leaving you with solid lye, which should look like salt.
The second method, which I prefer, is to take the ash, and place it in some cloth. Put the cloth with the ash in a container (make sure you have a way to hold it) and pour some hot water into the container until it covers the ashes. Then begin to move the cloth wrapped ashes up and down as you would a tea bag. Keep doing this for an hour or two (I know, not fun, but much faster than waiting a day or two). When finished, remove the ashes, and you should have your lye water. Now you can either let it dry in the sun like with the other method, or you can heat it up over a fire to speed up the process. When the water gets low, let the evaporation finish in the sun so you don’t scorch the lye.
Either way, you should end up with solid lye. Be careful when you handle lye. If it can dissolve a chicken feather (see below), it can also do a number on your skin.
As an alternative, if you do not wish to store the lye for any period of time, you can skip the evaporation step, and just use the lye liquid. Just look below for testing and mixing instructions.
The measurements I will offer here are just a good rule of thumb. You may have to play with it a bit depending on the ingredient you are using.
For this mixture you will need one (1) cup of water, seven (7) tablespoons of lye, and two (2) cups of melted fat.
Slowly add the water to the lye and mix it well. You can test the strength of the lye to see if it is strong enough to make soap. If it can dissolve a chicken feather, or if an egg can float in the liquid then you are good to go. (Sorry, I don’t know any ways that don’t involve a chicken) If you use the above measurements, it should be good enough. On the other hand, if you just chose to use the lye liquid, without evaporating it to get the solid lye, make sure you test the strength and use one (1) cup of lye liquid and two (2) cups of fat. The results will probably be less exact.
Warm up the mixture (theoretically to about 100F). Do the same with the fat, until it is melted.
Mix the lye water with the melted fat and stir the mixture until it is the consistency of melted chocolate. This can take an hour or more.
Let the mixture stand for a day or two until it solidifies. Remove it from the container and let it cure for about four (4) weeks. The reason for the curing is that otherwise the soap will still contain active lye, and may burn you.
You should now have usable soap. If not (if it separates during the cooling), you can reheat it in a water bath, stir it some more, and let it cool again.
As you can see, while all of the ingredients can be acquired in the wilderness, and the process can be completed without any special tools, it requires a stable living situation, not just a short trip into the woods. Again, the amount of time and work required will depend on the quality of soap you expect.
Monday, July 26, 2010
A stove of course can be a large investment, both financially, and from a weight stand point. The decision often requires a lot of thought and involves many factors. I will provide a brief overview of the most practical types of stoves on the market today in an attempt to maybe aid in that decision.
Petroleum/White Gas/Kerosine Stoves
These type of stove design has been around for a very long time in one form or another. These stoves use a liquid fuel which is then vaporized by preheating the stove to provide the burner flame. They are easy to refill, in that after a trip you can simply open the fuel container and top it off. The fuel is cheap and easily available, and there are a number of models which can run on multiple fuels. These types of stoves can function at extremely cold temperatures and high altitudes, and they have a very high heat output ratio if you need to melt snow, or cook for a lot of people. That is why some of the variants are used by the US Army as squad level stoves. The down side is that they are fairly heavy, ranging anywhere from 8.5 oz to 15 oz and they can be more difficult to operate, providing only limited flame control. Leading manufacturers of petrol stoves include MSR, Primus, Coleman, and Optimus.
Liquified Gas/Canister Stoves
These stoves use a pressurized gas, stored in a canister. The stove usually screws on top of the canister, although there are models where the canister sits tot he side of the stove. They are the closest thing you will find in operation to your home stove burners. All you have to do is turn the knob, and light it. The flame can be regulated just by adjusting the knob. They are easy to use, and fairly light weight, as low as 5 oz for canister mounted models and 7 oz for remote canister models. The downside is that the canisters can not be refilled at home. Most times you will have to carry an extra canister because you don’t know how much fuel you have left. The canister mounted models can not use a windscreen, which can significantly decrease performance in windy conditions. Additionally, these stoves are not ideal for cold weather as the fuel liquefies and does not light. Leading manufacturers of canister stoves include MSR, Primus, Snow Peak, and Coleman.
There are several commercially available stoves that work on denatured alcohol (ethanol) or methyl alcohol. Keep in mind, this is not rubbing alcohol, but can be found in hardware stores and gas stations. There are also many home made variations. These stoves are generally very easy to operate. Some models are nothing more than an open container in which you pour the fuel. Because of their simplicity, they are durable and cheap. The downside is that there is very little control over the stoves. With many models the method of turning them off is to wait for the alcohol to burn out. They also have fairly low heat output, which makes them impractical for more substantial cooking. They do not function well in cold weather, facing the same problem as the canister stoves. Leading manufacturers of alcohol stoves include Trangia, Brasslite and Mini Bull Design.
Wood stoves are exactly what you would expect. They use wood as a fuel. There are several models on the market. Some of them use a fan to blow air into the stove, while others rely on the design itself to funnel air. The main advantage of these stoves is that you can get the fuel in the wilderness. The down sides are that in many areas where fires are not allowed, wood burning stoves will also be prohibited. They also tend to be bulkier than other stove designs and require good fire lighting techniques to start. Leading models of wood burning stoves are BushBudy and Sierra Stove.
This is just a brief overview of the different stove designs on the market. There are many different variations and nuances, which require a more in debt analysis. Perhaps at a later date I will discuss in more detain each stove type and different models available.
There are also other heating devices such as solid fuel tabs, solar ovens and chemical heaters, and while thay may be sufficient to heat small amounts of water, or warm up your food, they lack the versatility and usefulness of the above models.
This year, so far, the summer has been fairly kind to us - last year the barbecue was used only a few times and the majority of them, when my husband was brave enough, were cooked under a couple of parasols, to shield both him and the barbecue from torrential rain. Unfortunately on Saturday, we had a very sudden and sharp shower, it was definitely a deja vous moment, with my husband muttering something like 'I don't believe it'!!!
The BBQ Grill and Chill Selection Pack is by Pipers Farm who are located in Devon. The pack includes 4 Red Ruby Steak Burgers(440g), 4 Pork Sausages(350g), 4 Red Ruby Grilling Steaks, 4 Spicy Chicken Drumsticks(600g), 4 Pork Steaks marinaded in lime and ginger(500g) and 2 Lamb Kebab(250g)Packs(500g). For full details please click here.
For me, the lamb kebabs were the star and must be the best lamb I have ever eaten. My husband cooked the kebabs so they were still pinkish, succulent and juicy. The steak burgers were full of flavour, the Red Ruby Grilling Steaks were cut thick to help stop them drying out. The sausage was a reminder of old fashioned finely ground pork sausage which was pleasing, because I am not very keen on coarse textured sausage. Both the Spicy Chicken Drumsticks and and Pork Steaks had a tasty marinade.
The BBQ Grill and Chill Selection Pack is delivered direct from the farm in a huge box - open it up and there is a personalised signed letter greeting you as a customer, information regarding your purchase and a leaflet relating to the Pipers Farm family. Delve down into the box through the packing and you will find your meat box surrounded by ice packs. The ice packs can be re-used, and the box, paper and plastic packaging can all be recycled.
Inside the box is your meat selection, well presented and surrounded by ice packs. The meat is frozen and individually packed in free-flow vacuum bags. Each pack comes with its own set of information regarding the product, tips on defrosting and suggestions for cooking. The Lamb Kebab pack comes with lots of wooden skewers - just remember to soak them first before you use them (I forgot).
For this barbecue there was just the two of us. I couldn't possibly eat all of the selection pack, otherwise I would have to spend all week in the gym trying to use up endless calories. As the packs are free-flow you only need to take out as much, or as little as you need.
A few interesting facts about Pipers Farm:
Pipers Farm was started 20 years ago by Peter and Henrietta Greig when their sons were very young. Their goal was to produce healthy meat that as a family they could enjoy eating with complete confidence. Today, Pipers Farm helps to sustain 30 farming families who have nurtured the countryside for generations. They passionately believe in offering their customers the best and healthiest meat they can buy, always a pleasure to cook, sensational to eat and excellent value.
Pipers Farm are multi award winning - Red Ruby Steak Burgers have a Gold Taste of the West Awards 2008, BBC Best Food Producer 2007, are one of Rick Stein's Food Heroes. To see the impressive Awards list click here.
Thank you Laurel and Pipers Farm.
It's been almost a month since the wrap-up of the very successful Foundry Photojournalism Workshop (FPW) in Istanbul, which achieved an impressive degree of multi-ethnicity amongst its participants...a veritable United Nations of photojournalism.
According to Neal Jackson, FPW Istanbul was attended by about 130 photojournalists (excluding instructors) from 41 countries.
The largest contingents were from the United States (30), host country Turkey (15), India (8) and Romania (7). Notably, 8 Middle Eastern countries were represented, fielding 16 photojournalists including 1 from Palestine/Gaza.
A tremendous achievement by all concerned; its founders, its staff, its instructors and its participants....and Istanbul.
Sunday, July 25, 2010
The first thing you need to do is connect the stove to the fuel bottle.
Then pump up the fuel bottle to pressurize it. I find that 10-15 pumps is enough. If you find that the pressure is low, you can always pump it up some more while the stove is burning.
Just like with most liquid fuels, it is not the liquid itself that burns, but rather the fumes from the fuel. Since this type of stove uses liquid fuel, the fuel must first vaporize before you can get an efficient burn. That is done by preheating the stove. One way to preheat it is to open the valve of the fuel bottle, and let some of the fuel leak out into the small priming pan at the bottom of the stove. When you light that fuel, it will burn and preheat the whole stove. I am not a big fan of using the stove fuel for preheating because it gives off a lot of smoke and turns the whole stove black. (When the fuel is vaporized, it burn cleanly) What I like to use for the priming is denatured alcohol, the same type used in alcohol stoves. I keep some of it in a small spray bottle. I use the alcohol to fill up the stove’s priming cup.
Light the alcohol, and let it do its job.
At this point, there are two ways to proceed. By the time the alcohol has burnt down, the stove should be preheated. The first way to proceed is to open the fuel valve of the stove while there is still a small flame from the alcohol. That flame will light the exiting white gas, and the stove will be lit. Make sure you do that when most of the alcohol has burnt off so you know that the stove is preheated.
If you have not pumped up the fuel bottle too much, you should be able to regulate the intensity of the flame by adjusting the fuel knob.
There will be variations between different stoves. Look at the directions to see where the different components are located. Some stoves will have a second valvue closer to the stove to allow for greater control. You will have to open and close it as well. The theory however remains the same with most white gas stoves.
I'll shortly be on my way to Bali to lead my Island of Odalan Photo~Expedition, which officially starts on August 1 to August 15. I'm in London for a short stop over, then on to the Thai Airways flight from Heathrow to Bangkok and onwards to Denpasar.
I'll spend a few days before the start of the photo-expedition in Ubud where I'll work on a short two-day assignment, renew my friendship with this delightful small town, and with Bintang beer.
I will be joined in Ubud by 8 photographers, but this is my last photo~expedition with such a high number of participants. Those who follow my blog know I've recently decided to limit my forthcoming trips/workshops to 5 participants, and to further enhance their photo-journalism component and multimedia story-telling.
I've tried cramming all my gear in my Lowepro backpack (a non-roller), but found it too uncomfortable to carry...not only was it very heavy, but also sort of awkward. Consequently, I will use my small Domke F-8 and the no-name messenger bag combination. This way, I'll be able to spread the gear over two bags....one for each shoulder when I need to. And this configuration is easier to get through any pedantic check-in agent. However the 70-200 2.8 will have to travel in my checked-in luggage.
It still allows me to carry a Canon 1D Mark II along with my 5D Mark II, a 28-70 2.8, a 17-40 4.0 and a 24 1.4, my Marantz audio recorder, and a couple of hard drives and my Macbook Pro 13". The rest of the electronic paraphernalia will travel in my checked-in luggage. Better that than risk a dislocated shoulder.
Oh, and no room for a Holga...but my Panasonic GF1 is trotting along with me, so we'll see how it performs in Bali as a walk-about camera.
Since internet access is ubiquitous in Bali, I will try to post some updates on the trip but there will a hiatus for a few days.
In the meantime, for those missing out on joining my photo expedition and workshop on this lovely island, I leave you with this short movie commercial for a new Sony Handycam filmed in Bali.
Saturday, July 24, 2010
What does Robert Fisk of The Independent have to do with photography? Probably nothing, but he's a mensch, which in Yiddish means "a person of integrity".
And why do I think that? Well, it's about his opinion piece on Octavia Nasr of CNN (or I should say, previously of CNN) and the British ambassador to Beirut, Frances Guy (still at her post, as far as I know).
Here's a quotation from this opinion piece published in The Independent of July 17, 2010:
"I loved the "controversial" bit – the usual "fuck you" word for anyone you want to praise without incurring the wrath of, well, you know who. The Foreign Office itself took down poor Ms Guy's blogapop on old Fadlallah, thus proving – as Arab journalists leapt to point out this week – that while Britain proclaims the virtues of democracy and the free press to the grovelling newspaper owners and grotty emirs of the Middle East, it is the first to grovel when anything might offend you know who."
Read it. And if you're interested in the Middle East, and why we are where we are now, you may want to read his incomparable The Great War For Civilization.
I am amazed at the number of younger photojournalists/photographers who "parachute" into Iraq and Afghanistan with only a rudimentary knowledge of history, and who tell me that after having 5 cups of tea with an Afghan family, they "understand" the culture.
This book has all they need to know and will set them straight...alas, it's a thick volume, so I'm not holding my breath.
Friday, July 23, 2010
I fully believe in the value of learning how to live and procure resources in the wilderness without the use of modern technology. What bothers me however, is that many people have managed to commercialize this very rejection of commercial goods. Many have become more concerned with looking the part than possessing the knowledge. It is always hilarious to see a person on the trails dressed like a mountain man from the 1800s, who clearly bought all the gear that some "bushcraft" site recommenced. Most of that gear of course, much more expensive and complex to produce than the "modern" technology he is trying to get away from.
When you look at a piece of bushcraft gear, ask yourself, "Is this actually a useful tool, which lets me live in the wilderness in a sustainable way, or is it just designed to look the part?"
A good rule of thumb that I use, is to check whether this "bushcraft" technology can be produced more easily in the wilderness than the modern equivalent. If the answer is "no", then there is no benefit to rejecting the modern equivalent. Of course, there is always personal preference, but we have to be honest about it. Do you just prefer the item because it makes you look more bushcrafty?
For example, I have nothing but respect and admiration for the person who has the skill to make his own leather coat from an animal which he has hunted down and killed. However, if you are standing in a department store, deciding whether to buy that $400 leather coat, or the $40 synthetic equivalent, ask yourself "Is this a better item, worth the price, or is it just something I am buying to look the part?" Be honest, if you are equally unable to produce either item in the wilderness, why are you choosing one over the other? Which one is better from a practical stand point?
End of rant!
The second part of the book focuses exclusively on the testing and performance of different materials for bow making. While interesting to those who wish to practice traditional bow making, it diverges a good amount from the topics covered in the first half of the book.
To the best of my knowledge, the book is in the public domain and a copy can be obtained here, here, and many other location online.
Reading and posting Stan Greene's excellent interview yesterday will probably satisfy my photojournalism interest for this week, so for a change in pace here's a lovely travel multimedia piece titled Mongolian Racer by The Guardian photographer Dan Chung, and narrated by Tania Branigan. (click the arrow).
The multimedia piece is on a horse trainer and his 10-year-old jockey who face the biggest day of their year at Mongolia's Naadam festival, which dates back to before Genghis Khan's time and celebrates the 'manly sports' of wrestling, archery and racing.
The Mongolian traditional festival of Naadam is also called in the local dialect as "the three games of men". These are Mongolian wrestling, horse racing and archery. The festival is held throughout the country during the midsummer holidays, however the largest is in Ulaanbaatar.
For the geeks, the piece was shot using Canon 1DmkIV, 5DMkII, 550D and GoPro HD camera, and a load of ancillary gear which is described in length in Dan Chung's blog DSLR News Shooter.
Apart from it being gorgeous videography, I noted the simple and clean font used for the title of the piece, and how it's placed against the dark cloud in a red sky...nice touch, that. And I also liked how the voice-over expertly blended with the ambient sound/voice.
Thursday, July 22, 2010
The original product was a powder that was poured into the wound. The newest product, including those for civilian consumption come in sponge form. While I am not smart enough to understand the chemical reactions that occur to stop the blood loss, the product is basically used by placing the sponge right on top of the source of bleeding. It quickly causes the blood to clot. It is very effective on exposed, open wounds such as those caused by an axe slamming into your shin. It will even stop direct arterial bleeding.
One thing to keep in mind is that the reaction which allows the clotting is exothermal, meaning it produces heat. While the newer products claim to minimize that effect, you will feel it. This is not a treatment for minor cuts and scrapes. This is a truly life saving device to be used on severe wounds. For the outdoorsman, it can serve to replace large amounts of traditional bandages and even tourniquets.
It is sold by the manufacturer, and can be purchased here: http://www.quikclot.com/catalog.cfm?dest=index Prices vary from $10 to $30 dollars depending on size and type of product. A 25 gram packet comes in a sealed 3 in by 3 in packet.
The inspiration for these cakes came from the wonderful lavender bush in my garden. I looked for recipes using lavender but as I am on a 'flowers and cupcakes' mission at the moment, Nigella's recipe in her book Forever Summer was perfect.
Nigella created these lavender cupcakes to raise money for the Lavender Trust, which is a charity for young women with breast cancer and was set up in memory of Ruth Picardie.
Whilst in the garden on a glorious hot and sunny day, I gained an unexpected 'new friend', a butterfly no less. As I started to cut a few lavender sprigs, he settled on the bush. He was a little camera shy and the photograph, unfortunately, doesn't show all of his markings.
For this recipe you will need to make some lavender sugar first. Simply put a few sprigs of lavender into some caster sugar for a few days and hey presto, lavender sugar.
For the cupcakes you will need:
125 g self-raising flour, 125g very soft unsalted butter, 125g sieved lavender sugar, 2 eggs, pinch salt and a few tablespoons of milk.
1. Preheat the oven to 200°C /Gas 6 and line a 12 bun muffin tin with paper cases.
2. Put all of the cake ingredients, except the milk, into a food processor and whizz, now blend in the milk.
3. Fill the cake cases and bake for 20 minutes or until cooked.
For the icing:
250g Instant Royal Icing, violet icing colour, twelve sprigs lavender
1. Cut the peaked tops off the cooled cupcakes.
2. Make up the icing with a little water to a thick double cream pouring consistency. Put some food colour paste onto a skewer and dye the icing to a pastel violet.
3. Spoon some of the icing over the top of the cupcakes. Top each of the cupcakes with a little sprig of lavender before the icing sets.
Stanley Greene’s Redemption and Revenge on the New York Times' LENS blog is one of the most interesting (and candid) interviews with a photojournalist/photographer I've read in a long time.
Having met Stanley Greene in Mexico City, I don't think I'd be wrong in describing Stanley as an iconoclast, as someone who doesn't mince words and who doesn't imitate. His opinions and responses as expressed during this interview confirm my view. This interview is a no platitudes no bullshit zone...and may rile some "lemmings", but for those who appreciate iconoclasts, it's a must read.
Excerpts that particularly resonate with me:
"When journalists start to distort reality, then I have a real problem with it. And when everything starts to look like a cartoon, I have a problem with it."
"When we get to the point where we start digging up graves to make photographs, I think we are in trouble."
"You need to be able to communicate with people. You should know a language. But even if you don’t know a language, you should at least be decent enough to understand what you are about to photograph, instead of just going, “Pow, pow, pow.” Because when you do that, then you are a vulture, and then you are what a lot of N.G.O.’s call us: “Merchants of misery.”
"I don’t own an apartment. I don’t own a house. I don’t own a car. I don’t have any stocks and bonds. All I own are my cameras. That’s it. And some cowboy boots."
Michael Kamber has worked primarily as a conflict photographer and covered a dozen wars including Afghanistan, Somalia, Liberia, Darfur and the Congo. He photographed the war in Iraq for The New York Times between 2003 and 2010. His photos have been published in nearly every major news magazine in the USA and Europe. Michael is the winner of a 2007 World Press Photo award, the Missouri School of Journalism’s Penny Press Award, American Photo Images of the Year and an Overseas Press Club award. He has been nominated three times for the Pulitzer Prize–twice for photography and once for reporting.
As I said, one of the best interviews I've read in a while.
I've been terribly remiss in covering the Philippines on this blog, but Jacob Maentz's fine work on this Asian nation will go a long way to rectify this.
Originally from the United States, Jacob is based in the Philippines from where he does considerable amounts of travel, working on freelance assignments and shooting stock photography. His travels to Latin America whilst in college is where he discovered his passion for the camera. He was brought to the Philippines in 2003 when he joined the United States Peace Corps and has found himself repeatedly drawn back to this part of the world since then.
Most of his galleries are of the Philippines, and I chose to feature the very interesting Infanta Penitents here.
Jacob writes that "Self flagellation practices were adopted by Filipinos during their Spanish colonization almost 500 years ago. Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments. Today, you can still see some Christians practicing flagellation in the Philippines as a form of devout worship and personal sacrifice, sometimes in addition to self-crucifixion. In the Philippine province of Quezon there are still a number of men who wear elaborate costumes while preforming their act of self flagellation."
When you've looked the Infanta Penitents, continue exploring Jacob's galleries. I did, and learned much about the cultural wealth of the Philippines.
My list of Google Followers have now grown to over 700 people. This list is distinct from my Twitter and Facebook followers and/or friends, Feed subscribers or from the subscribers to my newsletters.
To commemorate this milestone, I've decided to feature the 710th Google Follower whose screen name is Ruma2008. There not much on background information on his/her blog except that she or he is probably from Japan, likes Japanese calligraphy and landscape photography.
The Ruma2008's blog is titled Calligraphy In The Landscape, and thank you for following The Travel Photographer's blog!
Wednesday, July 21, 2010
While I do not want to exaggerate the likelihood of contracting a pathogen from drinking unpurified water, the importance of cleaning your drinking water can not be understated.
What to remove from the water:
There are a few different things that one should remove from their water supply.
The first thing that you would want to remove is sediment and other particulate matter. There are several reasons to do that. The first is that most people do not enjoy chewing their water. Even if it has been sterilized, the taste of sand and frog’s eggs does not make for the best drink. The second reason is that the particulate matter may provide a hiding place for some pathogens, and make your preferred method of purifying your water ineffective.
The second thing you want to remove from your water is protozoans/parasites. The two main parasites that cause problems in North America are Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The danger is represented by the cysts which once ingested, develop into the parasite. They are relatively large in size, Cryptosperidum ranging from 4 microns to 6 microns, and Giardia from 8 microns to 20 microns. This makes them fairly easy to filter out, but they are very resilient to chemical treatments.
The third thing to remove from your water is bacteria. Some of the more common bacteria are E Coli and Salmonella. They can range in size anywhere from 0.2 microns to 10 microns. They are easy to both filter and kill chemically.
The last thing to be concerned about is viruses. In North America, they are hard to come by in the wilderness, but it is something to keep in mind. The greatest danger of viral infection occurs in areas that have contact with human waste. Viruses are extremely small, and range in size from 0.004 microns to 0.1 microns. Filtration is not a practical method for removing viruses, but chemical treatments are effective.
How to clean the water:
There are several different methods to clean your water, and each has different benefits. The methods most commonly used by the backpacker are Filtration, Purification, Boiling, and UV Light.
The first method is to use filtration. Good portable water filters will be able to filter down to 0.2 microns. That makes them effective against protozoans/parasites and bacteria. Such filters will not remove viruses. They are however great at sediment removal. Prices for portable water filters range from $80.00 to $120.00, and they may weigh anywhere from 8 oz to 20 oz. Do not be fooled by straw type filters. Many of them filter only down to 2 microns instead of 0.2 microns. Leading manufacturers of portable filters include MSR, Katadyn and Pre-Mac (combination filter and purifier).
The second method is purification. This entails putting a chemical in the water, which kills the desired elements. There are several widely used purification methods, including Iodine (Potable Aqua), Chlorine (SweetWater), Mixed Oxidants (MIOX) and Chlorine Dioxide (Aquamira, Katadyn). Both Iodine and Chlorine treatments are effective against bacteria and viruses. Neither is effective against protozoans and clearly neither removes particulate matter. Chlorine Dioxide and MIOX are additionally effective against protozoans, but depending on water temperature, may take up to four hours to do so.
The third method is UV light. This includes devices like SteriPen, which use UV light to kill the organisms. This method is theoretically effective against bacteria, viruses and protozoans. The effectiveness however, will depend on the clarity of the water. If there is a lot of suspended particulate matter, the device may not be effective.
The last and most traditional way for cleaning your water is boiling. Tests show that bringing the water to a rolling boil will kill virtually all bacteria, viruses and protozoans. Of course, it will not do anything to remove particulate matter.
It is worth noting that there are methods for removing particulate matter from water other than using one of the above filters. These methods include using a Millbank Bag (a tightly woven material which filters out the sediment) or flocculating agents such as Chlor-Floc and Alum, which make the particles settle to the bottom of the container.
The method you decide to use will in part depend on the conditions in your area. If for example most of your water will be obtained from a swamp, filtration might be something to strongly consider. Keep in mind, purified swamp water is still swamp water and tastes just like you would expect.
PBS' Need To Know is featuring a Starved For Attention slideshow with 19 large photographs by Marcus Bleasdale, Jessica Dimmock, Ron Haviv, Antonin Kratochvil, Franco Pagetti, Stephanie Sinclair, and John Stanmeyer.
It's based on the extremely well produced multimedia campaign by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and VII Photo which exposes the neglected and largely invisible crisis of childhood malnutrition.
As an aside, I also noticed on Need To Know an article by Kavitha Rajagopalan on the buffoonish remarks made by Palin on the plans to erect a mosque and Islamic center near Ground Zero.
All I have to say is that it is New York and its inhabitants who suffered on September 11, 2001....and it's they who have the voice in this.
No one else.
Tuesday, July 20, 2010
For me, "bushcraft" is synonymous with "wilderness skills". It is simply a set of skills or "craft" that one can use in the wilderness or "bush". These skills can be used to accomplish any range of things, whether it be survival after being stranded in the woods, or a leisurely fishing trip. These skills or bushcraft, can be used in any of those situations, although depending on the circumstances, certain skills would be more valuable and heavily relied upon than others. For example, on a hunting trip, tracking skills might be more important; in a difficult survival situation, the ability to keep warm by building shelter and making fire would be key; and on a nice weekend trip into the woods, the ability to carve entertaining objects might take priority. These are all wilderness skills, or bushcraft, and a well rounded outdoorsman would have knowledge of all of them, but different set of the skills would be more applicable in different situations.
In recent years, it appears that certain groups of outdoor enthusiasts have taken it upon themselves to redefine the term. It has been turned into an activity all of its own. You hear expressions such as "this is not a real bushcraft knife because it is longer than four inches", or "using a ferrocerium rod is the bushcrtaft way to start a fire", or "any knife that does not have a single bevel grind is not worth much in bushcraft". All such statements stem from the fact that those people have redefined bushcraft to mean only a specific subset of wilderness skills, usually concerned more with wood carving and fire starting.
I have no problem with terms being redefined, as long as we are all on the same page. When I use the term, I use it to refer to all wilderness skills. I think it would be quite arrogant of us to say that a tribesman in the Amazon does not use bushcraft because his cutting tool of choice is a large machete rather than a four inch knife, or that the San bushmen do not use bushcraft because they are not accomplished wood carvers and rely on larger knives or that people like Dick Proenneke do not do bushcraft because he uses a folding knife.
Yet another group of people have come to think of bushcraft as some sort of a transcendent activity, which allows people to "thrive" in the bush. Such statements are often based on complete arrogance and ignorance of the wilderness or life therein, and most of them can be traced to specific parts of certain TV shows (mostly taken out of context). I strongly believe that if we do not respect the wilderness, and are not prepared, both with the right tools, and specific local knowledge, "thriving" is the last thing we will be doing even under the most favorable circumstances.
Just like all my other rambling posts, this is just my opinion, and should not be taken as authoritative on any one subject.
To the best of my knowledge, the book is public domain, and a copy can be downloaded here, here, and many other locations online.
Andrea Pistolesi is a pro in the full meaning of the word...a my kind of guy...a photographer who fuses travel and editorial imagery, and who's candid enough to say that professional travel photography as it existed is now extinct, and that travel publications and ancillary glossies are a dying breed. He espouses the view -like I do- that interesting visual stories are all around us, but that we need to broaden our scope by creating new ways of distribution (think of the new VII Magazine, as an example).
Andrea was born and lives in Florence, and studied geography at the local university, evolving in a travel photographer specializing in geographic and global social reportage. He published books on exotic destinations (Indonesia, New Zealand, Morocco, South Africa, The Land of Buddha, Hinduism, Eastern Christianity), and amongst others, has recently published a book on prayers of major religions.
He was widely published in CN Traveller (Italy), Delta Sky, Departures, Elle, l'Espresso, Figaro Mag, Gente Viaggi, Geo, Gulliver, Hemispheres, Islands, LATimes Mag, National Geographic, NYT Sophisticated Traveler, Photo, Rutas del Mundo, Smithsonian Mag, Time, Travel & Leisure, and many others.
Andrea's website is a cornucopia of travel and editorial photography, which is bound to give viewers hours of enjoyment, and provide photographers immense inspiration and ideas.
I spent a while on his website, trying to decide which of his galleries to feature on this blog. It was difficult, and I changed my mind often. Finally, I chose the brilliant reportage of the Rohingya refugees in southern Bangladesh.
As Andrea describes them, the Rohingya are the unwanted of southwestern Asia. An ethnic Muslim minority, they have no rights in Burma and try to flee across the borders with Bangladesh where only a few earn a refugee status. For others, it's a life of squalid illegal camps, an unending odyssey falling prey to human traffickers, to organ traffickers, to sex rings and to pedophiles.
Also read Andrea's blog post Requiem For Travel Photography. And don't miss his work on the Nats (spirits of Mynamar) and on the Bugis Seafarers.
Highly recommended as a photographer to follow.
Monday, July 19, 2010
Why, do you ask, is this such a big issue. For one, we tend to care deeply about the tools we use, and it only stands to reason that we will defend our choices with great vigor. The other reason however, is that we often talk about this subject in abstract and out of context.
Why do I say that? Well, I believe that we like to talk about knives because they are such a personal tool. Most people will however agree that it is not the king of bushcraft tools. That honor has traditionally gone to the axe in hard wood forests, and the machete in tropical and desert environments.
We have no problem acknowledging that when it comes to jungle terrain. Few people who are familiar with any outdoor activity would even consider taking anything other than a machete as their primary cutting tool when going into a jungle. Perhaps the reason for that is that there are still indigenous populations that actively live this lifestyle and make use of the tools. We have not lost the connection to the way these skills were being practiced when life actually depended on them.
We have however, largely lost that knowledge in Europe and the United States. It is almost impossible to find a person who relies on their axe to make a living in the woods. For most of us it has become a hobby. We have lost the connection to the traditional tool use, and have forgotten the central importance of the axe. If we look however, we can still see examples of it. In large parts of Northern Asia, life depends on the axe, and woodworking skill is essential. If we even go not too far back in history, we will see the same pattern. In his autobiography of 1860, Abraham Lincoln wrote:
Abraham, though very young, was large of his age, and had an ax put into his hands at once; and from that till within his twenty-third year he was almost constantly handling that most useful instrument--less, of course, in plowing and harvesting seasons.
For every pioneer, the axe was an indispensable tool. Even these days it is not uncommon to see people who live in the mountains of Eastern Europe going into the woods with an axe and a cheap equivalent of a Swiss Army knife. I remember my grandfather had half a dozen axes, and one pocket knife, which would not pass anyone’s quality standard. The axe was used for all the heavy work. The knife was used to decorate his walking stick.
So what does this have to do with the ideal bushcraft knife? Well, it gives the discussion context. Here is the point-if the most important cutting tool in the woods is the axe or machete, then the knife takes a secondary importance. That allows it to be, well, a knife. It can be a tool selected by the user because of the tasks that it is expected to perform. If you expect to be doing a lot of hunting, then perhaps a skinning knife will be your best choice. If you like to go in the woods and do delicate wood carving, then a knife designed for that purpose would suit the situation best. Going fishing...you get my point.
It can’t be that simple, you say! It’s not. The reason why it gets complicated is that these days we do not use the axe. Few people know how to use it, and even fewer want to carry it around. Instead, we turn to the knife to now accomplish not only the tasks for which we had originally selected it, but also to cover the cutting tasks which would have traditionally fallen on the axe.
This is where the hard choices begin. A knife designed for fine woodwork, for example, will have a hard time performing the wood cutting tasks traditionally covered by an axe. What do we do?
For some the answer is that there is no need to perform any of those cutting tasks. The reason why they left the axe at home was because they do not expect to have to do any heavy woodworking on the particular trip.
For others the answer is to carry a tool that offers a compromise. The tool often takes the shape of a larger knife, which incorporates some of the functions of a machete, and may even be supplemented by a saw. This tool will not perform the work of a job specific knife as well, and it will not do the work of an axe as well, but it does offer some comfort when a large range of tasks needs to be accomplished.
In my opinion, what we need to avoid is getting tunnel vision and forgetting the context. For example, if you had seen that my grandfather was a person who was comfortable in the woods, and had asked him what knife he uses, he would have pulled out a two and a half inch, non locking, folding knife. If that is all that we are focused on, we may reach the conclusion that this is the ideal bushcraft knife. If however we look at the context in which it is being used, we will see that had the axe been left at home, that knife would have been terribly inadequate.
So, just like I promised, I have answered no questions!
I was spoilt for choice when asked if I would like to review something from the Cookware By CSN website, and a little slow to order, because I just couldn't make my mind up!
My old frying pan was tired and worn out, so I decided to order a 24cm Circulon Infinite Hard Anodised French Skillet .
I chose this pan because after you have started a dish on the hob, it can then go into the oven at a maximum temperature of 240°C to finish off the cooking. The pan is suitable for all hobs, distributes heat evenly, requires the minimum of oil, has a tough non stick coating, is easy to clean and will outlive me, because it comes complete with a lifetime guarantee! As well as being functional, the pan also looks good too. I have chosen well and know that not only now, but in the future, I am going to be very happy with my choice.
I found the products competitively priced, the ordering system easy, and they have an excellent communications system keeping you up to date with delivery dates and order tracking.
Why not pop over to the CookwarebyCSN website and take a look at all of the wonderful kitchen goodies.
Thank you Eileen.
Here's a lovely audio-slideshow by the gifted Mervyn Leong W.Y. which you can either view on Vimeo (click above) or via his website here. The quality of the latter is better.
Mervyn attended the Foundry Photojournalism Workshop in Istanbul (he also attended last year's in Manali), and participated in Rena Effendi's Telling A Human Story Through A Compelling Portrait class. I spent time with Mervyn as he prepared to photograph inside the less-than-hospitable-for-photography interiors of the hammams, and can vouch for his meticulous planning, and how he took pains to wrap his camera, lenses and audio gear in saran-wrap (to protect them against moisture and steam).
An engineer by profession, Mervyn took photography and photojournalism more seriously a couple of years ago, and has made impressive strides in his work. He's also endowed with an encyclopedic knowledge of gastronomy, cooking and food in general.
I think that Hammams: Spreader of Warmth is a very well made audio slideshow (I particularly like the opening image of the slideshow, which is almost a painting), and the audio tracks are well sync'ed. You'll find it a delight to watch...and like the patrons enjoying the turkish bath, you may feel equally relaxed and refreshed.
The hamams in the Ottoman culture started out as annexes to mosques, and quickly evolved into institutions and eventually into monumental structural complexes in the mid 1500s. Typical hamams consist of three interconnected rooms: the sıcaklık which is the hot room; the warm room which is the intermediate room; and the soğukluk, which is the cool room.
Sunday, July 18, 2010
Mugur Vărzariu is a photojournalist based in Romania who attended the Foundry Photojournalism Workshop in Istanbul, and was in Adriana Zehbrauskas' On Assignment class.
It's a testament to Mugur's intrinsic talent that he started as a photographer less than four months ago. Yes, you read that right...less than 4 months ago, and he also just won the ‘Leica for AICR’ People Photo Contest, where one can read his interview.
He tells us that his first choice for a photojournalism project was to document faith, and to stress through his imagery that, despite the difference in the names or sites of worship, people’s faith is the same. Largely self-taught, he also attended a workshop in Italy with Paolo Pellegrin.
Mugur graduated in economics, and worked in marketing strategy (or brand positioning) for 15 years, when he helped position hundreds of brands. This, he believes, has helped him position his own craft...and from what I've seen from his work at the Foundry and on his website, he has succeeded.
I predict we'll hear and see more of Mugur Vărzariu. Have a look at his website, and you'll agree with me. The above images are from his Pillars of Faith gallery.